The following is taken from “The Quran Prior to science and civilization” pg. 28-29:
“And thou art not engaged in anything, and thou recitest not from HIM any portion of the Qur’an, and you do no work, but WE are Witness of you when you areengrossed therein. And there is not hidden from thy Lord even an atom’s weight in the earth or in heaven. And there is nothing smaller than that or greater, but it is recorded in a clear Book.” (Qur’an, 10:61)
Many centuries before the onset of Muhammad’s prophethood, there was awell-known theory of atomism advanced by the Greek philosopher, Democritus. He and the people, who came after him assumed that matter consists of tiny, indestructible,indivisible particles called atoms. The Arabs too, used to deal in the same concept; in fact, the Arabic word dharrahcommonly referred to the smallest particle known to man. Now, modern science hasdiscovered that this smallest unit of matters (i.e., the atom, which has all of the same properties as its element) can be split into its component parts. This is a new idea, adevelopment of the last century; yet, interestingly enough, this information had already been documented in the Qur’an which states:
“He [i.e., Allah] is aware of an atom’s weight in the heavens and on the earthand even anything smaller than that…” (Qur’an, 34:3)
Undoubtedly fourteen centuries ago that statement would have looked unusual,even to an Arab. For him, the dharrah was the smallest thing there was. Indeed, this is proof, that the Qur’an is not outdated. An atom of an element is the simplest particle that displays the properties of the element.The atomic theory has four assumptions: Atoms make up all matter. A somewhatmodern theory was put forward by an English schoolteacher, John Dalton in 1808. This Dalton theory described how atoms interacted to form compounds, but never evenconsidered the possibility of subatomic particles. J. J. Thomson discovered the first of the subatomic particles, the negatively-charged electron, in 1899.The modern view of the atom proposes that there are 3 subatomic particles.The modern view of the atom proposes that there are 3 subatomic particles. Elementary Particles: Today scientists have identified many other particles within atoms, but the threesimple subatomic particles—the electron, the proton, and the neutron—are still used toexplain many properties of atoms.More than 200 subatomic particles have been discovered so far, however most arenot fundamental, but are composed of other, simpler particles. For example, Rutherfordshowed that the atom was composed of a nucleus and orbiting electrons. Later physicists showed that the nucleus was composed of neutrons and protons. More recent work hasshown that protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.Some of subatomic particles are: electron, positron, electron, electronanti-neutrino, negative muon, muon, muon neutrino, muon anti-neutrino, negative tau, positive tau, tau neutrino, tau anti-neutrino.
Mustapha, Mlivo. The Quran Prior to Science and Civilization. (p. 28-29) https://www.academia.edu/37157857/Quran_Prior_to_Science_and_Civilization_By_Mlivo_Mustapha