The following excerpt is taken from “Astrophysics and the Holy Quran”

In 2001, Paul Steinhardt of Princeton and Neil Turok of Cormbridge proposed the Cyclic Universe Model. This model is the continuation of ancient Cosmic Mythologies (such as ancient Cosmic Hindu Mythology) and philosophies. According to the Cyclic Universe Model:

1. There is no beginning of space and time, but they exist forever.

2. The time does not start with the big bang; rather, the big bang is a bridge to a pre-existing contracting contracting era.

3. The Universe simply goes through countless cycles of creation and destruction, with trillions of years of evolution in between. During each cycle the universe contracts in a big crunch and re-emerges in an expanding big bang.

4. The temperature and density of the universe never become infinite at any point in the cycle. They never exceed a finite value (about a trillion trillion degrees).

5. The inflation does not take place since the big bang; the current homogeneity and flatness of space-time were created by events that occurred before the most recent big bang.

6. In every cycle, there is a prolonged period of accelerated expansion, which matches current observations.

In this cyclic model of universe, each cycle passes through a period of radiation and matter domination consistent with standard cosmology, producing the observed primordial abundance of elements, the cosmic micro-wave background, the expansion of galaxies etc. For the period of next trillion years or more, the universe undergoes a period of slow cosmic acceleration as observed recently and causes the events that lead to contraction and a big crunch. The “dark energy” explained as the potential energy, is not simply added on, but it plays an important role in the expansion of universe. The transition from big crunch to big bang automatically fills again the universe by creating new matter and radiation. Gravity and the transition from big crunch to big bang keep the cycles going forever.

Prof. Abdul Rashid Khan. Astrophysics & The Holy Quran . Darussalam Publishers. Kindle Edition.