Ruling on sexual intercourse in Islam

Quran 2:223:

Your wives are a place of sowing of seed for you, so come to your place of cultivation however you wish and put forth [righteousness] for yourselves. And fear Allah and know that you will meet Him. And give good tidings to the believers.

The following excerpt is taken from “Maariful Quran” vol 1 pg. 561:

“The verse 223 points out to the lawful ways of having sexual
intercourse with one’s woman. The permission of such intercourse has
been subjected to two conditions. Firstly, it should take place at a time
when the woman is pure from her menstruation. Secondly, carnal
intercourse is not allowed at all. This verse begins with a
comprehensive remark: “Your women are for you a soil to cultivate.”
Here the woman has been compared with a soil, while the husband
has been compared with a cultivator. This is to lndicate that the
sexual intercourse has not been allowed for satisfying the sexual lust
only, but also to make it a valid source for having children. By using
this expression the Holy Qur’an has given a subtle indication to the
prohibition of carnal intercourse, even with one’s wife, because it can
never be a productive act, and there is no question of ‘cultivation’
therein.
Subject to these two conditions (namely, the purity of the woman
from her menses, and avoiding the carnal intercourse) one can enjoy
whatever way he wishes to have sexual intimacy with his wife. In this
context, it has been said, “Come to your soil from where you will”. It
indicates that in so far as the ultimate place (of penetration) is a ‘soil’
(which stands for the female vagina which is productive like a soil),
one can elect whatever way he likes to reach this ultimate place. Thus,
lying over the woman or beside her or beneath her, acceding to the
vagina from any side, front or back, sitting or kneeling — all these and
similar other positions are allowed while performing sexual
intercourse subject to the two conditions mentioned above.”


Quran 23: 5-7:

And they who guard their private parts Except from their wives or those their right hands possess, for indeed, they will not be blamed – But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors –

The following excerpt is taken from “Maariful Quran” surah 23 pg. 303:

(However, those who seek (sexual pleasure) beyond that are the transgressors – )

Satisfying one’s desire with someone other than one’s own wife or a lawfully acquired slave-girl is strictly forbidden and the ban includes adultery (marrying a woman whom one is not allowed to marry under the religious code is also adultery), having sex with one’s wife or slave-girl when she is menstruating or is confined, or having unnatural sex with them, homosexuality and bestiality, while most jurists include masturbation also in the ban. (Tafsir Bayanul-Quran, Qurtubi, al-Bahr ul-Muhit, etc.)

The following excerpt is taken from “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” by Yusuf Al Qaradawi pg. 166:

A Ruling Concerning Masturbation

The pressing need to relieve himself of sexual tension may drive a young man to masturbation.

The majority of scholars consider it haram. Imam Malik bases his judgement on the verse, Those who guard their sexual organs except with their spouses or those whom their right hands possess, for (with regard to them) they are without blame. But those who crave something beyond that are transgressors, (23:5-7) arguing that the masturbator is one of those who “crave something beyond that.”

On the other hand, it is reported that Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal regarded semen as an excretion of the body like other excrete and permitted its expulsion as blood letting is permitted. Ibn Hazm holds the same view. However, the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation only under two conditions: first, the fear of committing fornication or adultery, and second, not having the means to marry.

We are inclined to accept the opinion of Imam Ahmad in a situation in which there is sexual excitation and danger of committing the haram. For example, a young man has gone abroad to study or work, thereby encountering many temptations which he fears he will be unable to resist, may resort to this method of relieving sexual tension provided he does not do it excessively or make it into a habit.

Yet better than this is the Prophet’s advice to the Muslim youth who is unable to marry, namely, that he seek help through frequent fasting, for fasting nurtures will-power, teaches control of desires, and strengthens the fear of Allah. The Prophet (peace be on him) said, Young men, those of you who can support a wife should marry, for it keeps you from looking at women (lit., lowers your gaze) and preserves your chastity; but those who cannot should fast, for it is a means of cooling sexual passion. (Reported by al-Bukhari.)

References:

Shafi, Muhammad (2008). Maariful Quran. (Vol .1 pg. 561) http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/maarif-volum1-english.pdf

Shafi, Muhammad (2008). Maariful Quran. (Vol .7 pg. 303) http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/maarif-volume7-english.pdf