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Ramadhan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur’an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.

“Allâh wishes facility for you” also refers to places and cases, which are exceptional and rare,
where the days and the nights are long, or where there is no periodic
appearance of the moon at the beginning of the lunar month such as in
countries near to the poles of the earth. The Companions asked the
Holy Prophet (pbuh) about their Prayers in a day which extended to
half a year or a month. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have
said that they should measure according to the measure of their
regular days (Dâ’ûd).

Ruling on Fasting during prolong Day or Night

References:

NOORUDDÎN ,ALLÂMAH. (2015). Exegesis of The Holy Qur’ân Commentary and Reflections. http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Exegesis-of-the-Holy-Quran-Commentary-and-Reflections.pdf

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