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O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination.

Read in conjunction with 3:26, which speaks of God as “the Lord of all dominion” – and
therefore the ultimate source of all moral and political authority – the above passage lays
down a fundamental rule of conduct for the individual believer as well as the conceptual
basis for the conduct of the Islamic state. Political power is held in trust (amanah) from
God; and His will, as manifested in the ordinances comprising the Law of Islam, is the
real source of all sovereignty. The stress, in this context, on “those from among you who
have been entrusted with authority” makes it clear that the holders of authority (ulu l-amr)
in an Islamic state must be Muslims.

References:

Asad, Muhammad (1980). The Message of the Quran. http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/55877864-54484011-Message-of-Quran-Muhammad-Asad-Islam-Translation.pdf

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