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11:10 But if We give him a taste of (Our) favours after adversity hath touched him, he is sure to say, “All evil has departed from me:” Behold! he falls into exultation and pride.

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But if We give him a taste of (Our) favours after adversity hath touched him, he is sure to say, “All evil has departed from me:” Behold! he falls into exultation and pride.

According to the Study Quran,

When the blessings God has conferred upon people are taken away
from them by God, they despair, thereby engendering ingratitude for God’s
Blessings. This is because they do not have a sufficient amount of hope in God,
lack reliance upon Him, and are impatient (Aj). Cf. 22:11: And among mankind
some worship God upon a brink: if good befalls him, he is content thereby, but if
a trial befalls him, he is turned over upon his face; see also 89:15–16; cf. 17:83;
41:49. Al-Rāzī says that believers should know that these blessings have come to
them from God’s Bounty, so their disappearance should not cause them to
despair (R). Some commentaries mention a ḥadīth qudsī in conjunction with this
verse that states, “I am as My servant thinks of Me. So let him think well of
Me.” This ḥadīth means that believers must harbor a positive view of God’s
Acts, or, as al-Rāzī puts it, in such circumstances they should say to themselves,
“After this, perhaps God will return these blessings to me [and they will be]
more perfect, beautiful, and excellent than they were [before].”
When people are then restored to some favor from God, they say, the evils,
namely, the afflictions (JJ), have gone from me, which is to say they will not
thank God for removing the difficulties and will not consider the possibility that
these new blessings can also be taken away from them (JJ). Such people are thus
exultant, boastful, but deluded (Bḍ), rejoicing over these blessings while
forgetting to be grateful to God for them (Q). See also 39:49: And when harm
befalls man, he calls upon Us. Then, when We confer upon him a Blessing from
Us, he says, “I was only given it because of knowledge.” Nay, it is a trial, but
most of them know not; cf. 10:12; 30:33; 39:8c; see also 39:49c.

References:

Nasr, Hossein (2015). Study Quran. http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/TheStudyQuran.pdf

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