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Al Khawrizmi

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The Muqaddimah – Ibn Khaldun

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The Trumpet in Islam

The following excerpt is taken from ‘’:

Praise be to Allaah.

The word “soor” (translated here as trumpet) means a horn, like a trumpet or bugle. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked about the Trumpet and he explained it in terms of what the Arabs knew in their own language, as narrated in Sunan al-Tirmidhi (3244) and elsewhere from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: A Bedouin said: “O Messenger of Allaah, what is the Trumpet?’ He said: “A horn that is blown into.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Saheehah, 1080. 

With regard to the one who will blow into it, it is well known that he is Israafeel (peace be upon him). Some of the scholars narrated that there is consensus on this, and it is stated clearly in some ahaadeeth. See Fath al-Baari, 11/368. 

The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has told us that the one who will blow the Trumpet has been ready to do so since Allaah created him, as it is narrated in al-Mustadrak from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The gaze of the one who will blow the Trumpet has been fixed since he was entrusted with it, looking towards the throne, ready (to blow it), in case he will be commanded to do so before he blinks, as if his eyes are two shining stars.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 1078. 

The majority of scholars are of the view that the Trumpet will be blown twice: the first time all creatures will swoon and the second time the resurrection will come to pass. This is based on the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allaah wills. Then it will be blown a second time, and behold they will be standing, looking on (waiting)”

[al-Zumar 39:68]

And it is based on the saheeh ahaadeeth which mention these two blowings and what will follow them. al-Bukhaari (4651) and Muslim (2955) narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Between the two blowings of the Trumpet there will be forty.” The people said, “O Abu Hurayrah! Forty days?” I said: “I am not sure.” They said, “Forty years?” I said: “I am not sure.” They said, “Forty months?” I said: “I am not sure. Then Allaah will send rain down from the sky and they will grow as herbs grow. There is no part of a man which will not decay except a single bone at the base of the coccyx, from which he will be re-created on the Day of Resurrection.”  

Al-Nawawi said: what is meant by the words of Abu Hurayrah, “I am not sure” is that he could not be certain as to whether what was meant was forty days or years or months; all that he was certain of was that it was forty in general terms. 

In Saheeh Muslim (2940) it is narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “… then the Trumpet will be blown and no one will hear it but he will bend his neck to one side and raise it from the other side. The first one who will hear it will be a man who is busy in setting right the cistern meant for supplyingwater to the camels. He will swoon and the other peoplewill also swoon. Then Allah will send or He will send down rain which will be like dew and there will grow outof it the bodies of people. Then the trumpetwill be blown again, and they will stand up and begin to look around.”  

Some of the scholars said that the trumpet will be blown three times, including the time when it will be blown and all people will be terrified, which will come before the people swoon. … They based this on the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“And (remember) the Day on which the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth, will be terrified except him whom Allaah will (exempt). And all shall come to Him, humbled”

[al-Naml 27:87]

But the fact that swooning is mentioned in one verse and terror is mentioned in another does not mean that they will not happen at the same time when the Trumpet is blown for the first time. Rather they will happen at the same time, so when the Trumpet is blown the people will be terrified, and will swoon as a result and die. 

They also quoted as evidence some ahaadeeth in which it is mentioned that the Trumpet will be blown three times. 

But the hadeeth which they quote as evidence is the lengthy hadeeth about the Trumpet, which is a da’eef (weak) hadeeth, as al-Haafiz ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said. And Allaah knows best. See al-Tadhkirah by al-Qurtubi (184); Fath al-Baari, 11/369. 

From the above it may be understood that when Allaah decrees that all living beings should die, He will command the angel to blow the Trumpet, so he will give a mighty blast which will terrify all creatures, as a result of which they will swoon and die. Then they will stay like that for as long as Allaah decrees, which is described as forty without specifying whether that is years, months or days – Allaah knows best how long it is. Their bodies will decay within this period until there is nothing left but the bone from the base of the coccyx, which is a round bone at the base of the spine. Then Allaah will send a cloud that will release rain, and when the water reaches this bone, the body will grow from it like a plant grows and they will be recreated from this bone, just as Allaah created them the first time, for He is able to do all things. Then he will blow the Trumpet to signal the Resurrection, and the souls will return to their bodies and will come forth from their graves and hasten to the place of gathering. We ask Allaah for His mercy and kindness. 

What the Muslim has to do is to prepare for these decisive moments by hastening to do righteous deeds and keeping away from evil things and bad deeds. 

If the one who most feared Allaah said, “How can Ibe at ease when the one who blows the trumpet hasput it to his mouth, bent hisforehead and inclined his ear, waiting to see when he will be ordered toblow it?” – as narrated by al-Tirmidhi in al-Sunan, 243, and others, and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah, 1079 – then what about us who are weak and fall short? We ask Allaah to make us among those who will not be grieved by the greatest terror when the angels will meet them (with the greeting), “This is your Day which you were promised.” (cf. al-Anbiya’ 21:103).  And Allaah knows best. 

See al-Qiyaamah al-Kubra by Shaykh ‘Umar al-Ashqar, 33-42; A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah, 122.


Higgs Boson

Quran 73:14:

On the Day the earth and the mountains will convulse and the mountains will become a heap of sand pouring down.


Quran 30:21:

And among His signs is that He created mates for you from among yourselves, that you might find rest in them, and He established affection and mercy between you. Truly in that are signs for a people who reflect.

The following excerpt is taken from “The Study Quran” under the commentary of the above verse:

That God made for human beings mates from among yourselves (or “from your souls”; cf. 16:72; 35:11; 42:11; 78:8) is also understood to mean “from yourselves” when seen as an allusion to the creation of Eve from Adam’s rib (IK, Ṭ), though some commentators are skeptical of this association, feeling it relies too heavily on the Biblical tradition (see Genesis 2:21–23). A direct account of Eve’s creation is not found in the Quran, only in the Ḥadīth literature; see 4:1c. Although many understand the present verse as an address to men, telling them of the benefits to be found in their wives (Aj, IK, R), viewed in a broader Quranic context, especially in relation to those verses that state that God created human beings from a single soul (4:1; 6:98, 7:189, 31:28, 39:6) and its mate from that same soul (see 7:189c and 39:6), it is most likely an address to both men and women, telling of the manner in which God has extended His own Love and Mercy to them through the love and mercy that they manifest toward one another. In this sense, the purpose of marriage is not limited to producing children; it also represents a spiritual good in and of itself and a means by which men and women can encounter God’s Love and Mercy in each other. In this vein, the Prophet is reported to have said, “The believer whose faith is most complete is the one whose character is the best; and the best among you are those who are best to their wives.”

As well:

Quran 2:35:

And We said, “O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.”

Regarding the word “Paradise”, Muhammad Asad writes:

“Lit., “the garden”. There is a considerable difference of opinion among the commentators as     to what is meant here by “garden”: a garden in the earthly sense, or the paradise that awaits     the righteous in the life to come, or some special garden in the heavenly regions? According     to some of the earliest commentators (see Manar I, 277), an earthly abode is here alluded to     namely, an environment of perfect ease, happiness and innocence. In any case, this story of Adam is obviously one of the allegories referred to in 3:7.”

Furthermore, T.O. Shanavas writes:

“Most contemporary Muslims across the world believe that Adam and Eve were created in Paradise (Jennat-ul-Khuld) but were expelled for eating fruit from the forbidden tree in the garden. Early Muslims carried on great debates about the location of the garden. According to the two foremost exegetes of the Quran, Ibn Kathir (died in 1372) and arRazi (died in 1209), four interpretations of the location of the garden prevailed: that the Garden was Paradise itself, that it was a separate Garden created especially for Adam and Eve, that it was located on Earth, and the view that it was best for Muslims not to be concerned with the location of the Garden. Unorthodox as it seems for our time, more reasons lead us to believe that the garden was on Earth rather than in Paradise.”

In general terms, however, this term (Paradise) refers to the Earth and its blessings.

According to “Lamp of Islam”:

Adam and his/her spouse symbolize mankind’s male and female equals

At this point (2:35) – when man and woman are asked to dwell in the garden and to ‘eat’ therefrom – we notice the sudden change of address from single form (Adam) to the dual (ADAM AND HIS/HER SPOUSE), apparently to signify the whole humanity represented by its male and female equals.

Here we cannot ignore that this reference to the two human counterparts – men and women – clearly follows a context that insures gardens for virtuous people to be fed therefrom and to dwell with their SPOUSES therein (2:25).

Furthermore, according to Muhammad Asad regarding “the tree”:

“This symbolic tree is designated in the Bible as “the tree of life” and “the tree of knowledge of good and evil” (Genesis ii, 9), while in the above Qur’anic account Satan speaks of it as “the tree of life eternal (al-khuld)”. Seeing that Adam and Eve did not achieve immortality despite their tasting the forbidden fruit, it is obvious that Satan’s suggestion was, as it always is, deceptive. On the other hand, the Qur’an tells us nothing about the real nature of that “tree” beyond pointing out that it was Satan who described it – falsely – as “the tree of immortality”: and so we may assume that the forbidden tree is simply an allegory of the limits which the Creator has set to man’s desires and actions: limits beyond which he may not go without offending against his own, God-willed nature” (The Message of the Quran pg. 619-620)

In other words, the tree here simply refers to the limits which God has placed on Mankind, limits that each human being is aware of and knows that if he/she crosses, will harm him/herself.

With this commentary we can properly understand the verse 2:35 above:

Dwell O Adam (man/woman), you and your mate in Paradise (the Earth) and eat therefrom from wherever you wish (Do whatever you like i.e. seek every blessing) but do not approach this tree (signifying the limits placed on humanity as a whole and individuals).

What we must understand is that Allah has bestowed a great honour on humanity by saying ‘you and your mate’. This unique reference is for the pure purpose of honoring both spouses, also by calling this world by the name of the eternal Garden (Jannah), it is an even greater honour as it establishes that this world in which we live in is also “a” Jannah (Paradise), a place of goodness and blessing.

The Story of Adam adds a further blessing to all this by stating that if we make a mistake that harms us, we may seek forgiveness from God and we will be instantly forgiven and regranted Paradise. The whole purpose of the Story of Adam is this: life, liberty, redemption and thus, freedom.

The Quran and Human Embryology

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The Moon

The following excerpt is taken from “Maariful Quran” by Mufti Taqi Usmani vol. 4 pg. 516-521:

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Communicating with Allah

Quran 42:51:

The following excerpt is taken from “The Message of the Quran” by Muhammad Asad pg. 954-955:

And it is not given to mortal man that God should speak unto him otherwise than through sudden 52 inspiration, or [by a voice, as it were,] from behind a veil, or by sending an apostle to reveal, by His leave, whatever He wills [to reveal]: 53 for, verily, He is exalted, wise.

Note 52: This is the primary meaning of wahy, a term which combines the concepts of suddenness and inner illumination (Raghib); in the usage of the Qur’an, it is often, though by no means always, synonymous with “revelation”. – The above passage connects with the first paragraph of verse 48, which speaks of the divine message entrusted to the Prophet.

Note 53: Cf. 53:10

The following is from page 1038 of the same book:

And thus did [God] reveal unto His servant whatever He deemed right to reveal,6

Note 6:

Lit., “whatever He revealed”: an allusion to the exceptional manifestation of the angel “in his true shape and nature” as well as to the contents of divine revelation as such. In its deeper sense the above phrase implies that even to His chosen prophets God does not entirely unveil the ultimate mysteries of existence, of life and death, of the purpose for which He has created the universe, or of the nature of the universe itself.

The Prophet’s Knowledge of the Quran

The following excerpt is taken from “Science in the Quran” by Sayyid Rami Al Rifai chapter 1:

It is clear from the prophet Muhammad’s (saws) own words that He (saws) understood there is knowledge in everything which needs to be studied and discovered before it can be known, today for mankind science fulfils this role. The Prophet – praise and peace be upon him – said, “Indeed, knowledge has a branch which resembles a hidden thing (it needs to be discovered); no one grasps it except those who know Allah.” Allah in the Quran speaks about all aspects of creation, but much of it was beyond the understanding of the desert Arabs living 1400 years ago, Allah says: “And we strike these similitudes for the people, but none understands them except those who know.” (29: 42). Regarding this the prophet (saws) said, “Indeed, there is an external meaning and an internal meaning to the Qur’an, a scope and a point.” Ali, pointing to his breast, said, “Indeed, herein lies abundant knowledge; would that there were some to (comprehend and) transmit it.”   It was because not every person was capable of understanding science that the prophet (saws) said, “We prophets were ordered to communicate with everyone according to his ability to understand.” This is because there was a danger in trying to teach people science they would not be able to prove for another 1400 years, so the prophet (saws) warned, “No one has ever recited a prophetic quotation to a people which their minds have failed to grasp without it being a temptation for them.” The prophet taught the scientific meanings behind specific verses to the companions who could grasp them and they understood the dangers of trying to teach knowledge that could not be visually proven.   Allah said in the Quran, “It is Allah who has created the seven heavens and of (the) earth, their like (meaning the other planets); and between them the Command descends (the Laws of Physics governing space)” (65: 12). Ibn Abbas (r.a) said about this verse, “Were I to relate its interpretation you would stone me” or  “ you would have said, ‘He is an unbeliever’”. Abu Hurrah similarly said, “I have received from the Prophet of Allah two things (types of knowledge), one of which I have made public. Were I to divulge the other, this throat would be cut.”   The prophet  ( saws)   said, “Abu-Bakr has excelled you not by excessive fasting and much prayer, but by a secret which rests in his chest.” His ability to understand science and everything the prophet (saws) taught him about the universe and Allah.   Allah said in the Quran “Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Are those who know equal with those who know not? But only men of understanding will pay heed.” (39: 9)

Al Rifai, Sayyid Rami. Science In The Quran (pp. 1-2). UNKNOWN. Kindle Edition.

The Soul and its Attributes

Quran 17:85:

And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, “The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little.”

The following excerpt is taken from “Maariful Quran” by Mufti Taqi Usmani vol. 5 pg. 544-552:

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The following excerpt is taken from “Ihya Uloom Al Din” by Imam Ghazzali vol. 3 pg. 7-46:

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