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Category: Astronomy (Page 1 of 2)

The Cyclic Universe Model

The following excerpt is taken from “Astrophysics and the Holy Quran”

In 2001, Paul Steinhardt of Princeton and Neil Turok of Cormbridge proposed the Cyclic Universe Model. This model is the continuation of ancient Cosmic Mythologies (such as ancient Cosmic Hindu Mythology) and philosophies. According to the Cyclic Universe Model:

1. There is no beginning of space and time, but they exist forever.

2. The time does not start with the big bang; rather, the big bang is a bridge to a pre-existing contracting contracting era.

3. The Universe simply goes through countless cycles of creation and destruction, with trillions of years of evolution in between. During each cycle the universe contracts in a big crunch and re-emerges in an expanding big bang.

4. The temperature and density of the universe never become infinite at any point in the cycle. They never exceed a finite value (about a trillion trillion degrees).

5. The inflation does not take place since the big bang; the current homogeneity and flatness of space-time were created by events that occurred before the most recent big bang.

6. In every cycle, there is a prolonged period of accelerated expansion, which matches current observations.

In this cyclic model of universe, each cycle passes through a period of radiation and matter domination consistent with standard cosmology, producing the observed primordial abundance of elements, the cosmic micro-wave background, the expansion of galaxies etc. For the period of next trillion years or more, the universe undergoes a period of slow cosmic acceleration as observed recently and causes the events that lead to contraction and a big crunch. The “dark energy” explained as the potential energy, is not simply added on, but it plays an important role in the expansion of universe. The transition from big crunch to big bang automatically fills again the universe by creating new matter and radiation. Gravity and the transition from big crunch to big bang keep the cycles going forever.

Prof. Abdul Rashid Khan. Astrophysics & The Holy Quran . Darussalam Publishers. Kindle Edition.

Astrophysics and the Holy Quran

Time and Relativity

The following excerpt is taken from “Islam and Science” by Mohammed Awal:

Many scientists assumed that almost all laws governing the physical universe had been discovered. In the 1900s, however, the discoveries of quantum mechanics and especially the theory of Albert Einstein changed and revolutionarise our understanding of mass, energy, space and time. The second message is that the concept of time is relative. Until very recently, time was simply a matter of consulting the watch.  In chapter 70:4 of the Holy Qur’an however, it is declared that the Spirit and Angels travel a distance which in human terms take 50,000yrs in a day. The humble writer believes that time therefore can posses varying flexibility for different entities. You know, let’s quote the whole verse and work with it once and for all.

“The angels and the spirit ascend to Him (Allah) in a day, Whose measure of which is fifty thousand years (of your counting)”.

Einstein’s special theory of relativity has revolutionalised our understanding of mass, energy, space, and even time. The relativity theory, which first argued that time is relative is discussed in this chapter. Now the messages contained in this verse scientifically are that: “their day” is equivalent to 50,000 * 365=18,250,000 of our days, period.

The limiting velocity according to physicists of physical matter is the speed of light which is 186.3000miles per second. Hence the dilatory flow of time is closely related to the phenomena of visibility and invisibility.  In all Holy Books, the statement occurs that the world was created in six days. With the present verse, the Qur’an expresses the fact that the used of the word “day” here differs from our ordinary concept of a day. Both Einstein and Lorentz have maintained that the speed limit of matter is 300,000km per second in a fundamental law of physics. If that is so, then it’s a statement of fact that angels cannot be seen in flight. Their velocity is (possibly) given in terms of material speed =18,250,000. Time which flows slowly in our physical world has no meaning for them. Entities with velocities greater than 300,000/second cannot be observed. How then can we observe the angel and spirit who

transverse beyond that speed? The fact that the relativity of time is so clearly mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, which started to be revealed in 610AD, is another evidence that it is a Holy Book.  Other chapters and verses which deal with relativity of time are Q22:47, Q32:5, Q23:12.

Mohammed Awal, Sheikh Ahmed. Islam And Science . Unknown. Kindle Edition.

Death of the Stars and the Sun

The following excerpt is taken from “The Quran: Its Undeniable Miracles” under the category: ‘Death of the Stars and the Sun’:

At the time of the descent of the Quran, people believed that the light of the stars would last forever. This at a time when the inner structure of the stars was a mystery and the fact that the energy of the stars would, one day, be exhausted was not known. The Quran’s prediction about the end of the stars is a miraculous statement.

When the stars are put out. (77:8) When the planets are scattered. (82:2)

While the verses speak of the putting out of stars, the planets, not light sources, will scatter. The Arabic word for a star is “najm,” while “kavkab” is a planet. Given the fact that the planets are dependent on a central star, when this star is no more, the planets will necessarily scatter. (There have been translators who translated both words as stars without heeding the difference between them.) Planets are not light sources, therefore their extinction is out of question. The Quran displays its miraculous attribute in all its statements. When the sun is rolled. (81:1) The Arabic word “takwir” refers to the wrapping of the turban around the head in a spiral form; it also means the rolling or winding of a thing into a ball or round mass, or around something. The scene describes how the end of the sun will come. Like all the other stars, our sun also consumes hydrogen atoms by transforming them into helium atoms and releasing energy in the form of radiation, heat and light. The transformation of hydrogen into helium stops with the exhaustion of the hydrogen. Even without the effect of other potential causes, the sun will have to come to an end for this reason. Before their extinction, the stars, according to their sizes, pass through such phases as red giant, white dwarf or black hole. In view of its magnitude, our sun must turn first into a red giant before dying. The sun has been a subject of worship in the history of mankind. People who did not believe in the end of the universe considered the sun itself to be an immortal divinity and thought that the universe and the earth would last eternally; there have been those who believed in the transmigration of souls everlastingly. Having eventually been convinced by scientific discoveries that the world was doomed to die one day, the minds that idolized the sun and the belief in the eternal reincarnation cycle lost their support. The belief in the Hereafter described in the Quran and the end of the universe are interconnected as the stages of a system. Taking cognizance of the fact that the end of the universe will eventually come has reinforced the belief in the Hereafter.

And verily the Hour is coming, no doubt about it, and that God will resurrect those who are dead. (22:7)


  The description of the end of the universe in the Quran relating to the end of the sun and of the world is given in striking colors. What the people at the Prophet’s time knew about astronomy could not possibly have permitted them to describe such occurrences. Muslims who lived at the time of the revelation of the Quran believed in all these, not because of scientific deductions but because they had faith in the fact that it was easy for God, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, to destroy them. All the statements of the Quran about the

disappearance of the stars, the sun and the earth are corroborated today by scientific discoveries.

Reference:

Ali, Project. THE QURAN: Its Undeniable Miracles . Unknown. Kindle Edition.

Pulsar

The Creation of the Universe in the Quran and Science

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The Future of the Universe according to the Quran and Science

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Creatures in the Heavens and Earth

Quran 42:29:



And of his signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and what He has dispersed throughout them of creatures. And He, for gathering them when He wills, is competent.

According to Muhammad Asad, the term “Heavens and Earth” denotes:

‘Lit., “in both”. In the Qur’an, the expression “the heavens and the earth” invariably denotes the universe in its entirety.’ (The Message of the Quran, pg. 950, note #33)

And also:

“It is Allah who has created the seven heavens and a like number of earths. His commandments are sent between them, so that you would know that Allah has power over all things and that His knowledge encompasses all” (The HolyKoran 65:☐2).     

As written by Dr. Anisur Rahman:

“Hence, if we pay attention to the above Noble verses, it is very clear that the Glorious Koran says that the Earth is not the only unique and the only one in this Universe, and that, living things are also not only exclusive to the Earth. Rather, innumerable earths and living beings (seven earths may just allegorically means huge numbers) are dispersed in this gigantic Universe.”

Rahman,Dr. Md. Anisur. Quran and Modern Science (pp. 80-81). Unknown. Kindle Edition.

Perfect Orbits in the Universe

The Moon a Reflected Light

The following excerpt is taken from “The Quran and Modern Science” by Zakir Naik pg. 11-12:

“It was believed by earlier civilizations that the moon emanates its own light. Science now tells us that the light of the moon is reflected light. However this fact was mentioned in the Qur’aan 1,400 years ago in the following verse:.

“Blessed is He Who made Constellations in the skies, And placed therein a Lamp And a Moon giving light.” [Al-Qur’aan 25:61]

The Arabic word for the sun in the Qur’aan, is shams. It is referred to as siraaj, which means a ‘torch’ or as wahhaaj which means ‘a blazing lamp’ or as diya which means ‘shining glory’. All three descriptions are appropriate to the sun, since it generates intense heat and light by its internal combustion. The Arabic word for the moon is qamar and it is described in the Qur’aan as muneer, which is a body that gives nur i.e. light. Again, the Qur’aanic description matches perfectly with the true nature of the moon, which does not give off light itself and is an inert body that reflects the light of the sun. Not once in the Qur’aan, is the moon mentioned as siraaj, wahhaaj or diya or the sun as nur or muneer. This implies that the Qur’aan recognizes the difference between the nature of sunlight and moonlight.


Consider the following verses related to the nature of light from the sun and the moon: “It is He who made the sun To be a shining glory And the moon to be a light (Of beauty).” [Al-Qur’aan 10:5]

“See ye not How Allah has created The seven heavens One above another, “And made the moon A light in their midst, and made the sun As a (Glorious) Lamp?” [Al-Qur’aan 71:15-16] “

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