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Category: Biology

Pre-Darwinian Muslim Scholars and Evolution

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Of Every Noble Kind

Quran 26:7:

Did they not look at the earth – how much We have produced therein from every noble kind?

According to “Ishraq al Maani” by Syed Iqbal Zaheer, under the commentary of the above verse:

‘ Zawj is (not necessarily for pairs but: Au.) for kinds and classes too (Alusi).

The textual kareem, rendered as beautiful here, has the backing of Ibn Jarir, Zamakhshari and Qurtubi who cite examples of such usage in the Arabic language.

Sha`bi assumed the meaning of kareem as noble and commented: People are of the earth’s product. He who entered Paradise is kareem (noble), while he who entered Hellfire is la’eem (ignoble) – Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir.

The implied meaning is, adds Alusi, man is included in the allusion to “what Allah causes the earth to grow.” ‘

Creative Evolution

The Following excerpt is taken from “What is the Origin of Man?” by Maurice Bucaille pg. 79-84:

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Adam: Our Foremost Father

From water We created every living thing

Quran 21:30:

Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?

The following excerpt is taken from “The Message of the Quran” pg. 630:

“The statement that God “made out of water every living thing” expresses most concisely a truth that is nowadays universally accepted by science. It has a threefold meaning:

(1) Water – and, specifically, the sea – was the environment within which the prototype of all living matter originated;

(2) among all the innumerable – existing or conceivable – liquids, only water has the peculiar properties necessary for the emergence and development of life; and

(3) the protoplasm, which is the physical basis of every living cell – whether in plants or in animals – and represents the only form of matter in which the phenomena of life are manifested, consists overwhelmingly of water and is, thus, utterly dependent on it.”

Allah has created every [living] creature from water. And of them are those that move on their bellies, and of them are those that walk on two legs, and of them are those that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.

“The term dabbah denotes every corporeal being endowed with both life and spontaneous movement; hence, in its widest sense, it comprises the entire animal world, including man.” (The Message of the Quran, pg. 694)

Creatures in the Heavens and Earth

Quran 42:29:



And of his signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and what He has dispersed throughout them of creatures. And He, for gathering them when He wills, is competent.

According to Muhammad Asad, the term “Heavens and Earth” denotes:

‘Lit., “in both”. In the Qur’an, the expression “the heavens and the earth” invariably denotes the universe in its entirety.’ (The Message of the Quran, pg. 950, note #33)

And also:

“It is Allah who has created the seven heavens and a like number of earths. His commandments are sent between them, so that you would know that Allah has power over all things and that His knowledge encompasses all” (The HolyKoran 65:☐2).     

As written by Dr. Anisur Rahman:

“Hence, if we pay attention to the above Noble verses, it is very clear that the Glorious Koran says that the Earth is not the only unique and the only one in this Universe, and that, living things are also not only exclusive to the Earth. Rather, innumerable earths and living beings (seven earths may just allegorically means huge numbers) are dispersed in this gigantic Universe.”

Rahman,Dr. Md. Anisur. Quran and Modern Science (pp. 80-81). Unknown. Kindle Edition.

Islamic Views on Evolution

Orthodox View:

The Garden of Adam and Eve

Alternate Views:

What is the Origin of Man – Maurice Bucaille

And God Said: Let There Be Evolution (pg. 129-166) – T.O. Shanavas

Creation and Evolution in the Quran – Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Quran:

The Story of Adam:

Surah 2 Verses 30:39

Surah 7 Verses 11-27

Surah 15 Verses 28-48

Surah 20 Verses 115-124

Understanding the Allegory of Adam

Mates

Forces

The Names

Science:

Revelation: The Metaphysics of the Future

Creative Evolution

What is the Origin of Man – Maurice Bucaille

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