April 19, 2021

Islamic Web Library

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Islamic view of the Creation of life on Earth

9 min read

Quran 2:20-21:

O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous – [He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him].

The following excerpt is taken from “Six-Day Model of
Creation” by Zakaria Kamal pg. 60-67:

Creation of Life on Earth

A progression in the living organisms shows that they
evolved through the eons of time from lower to higher
form. The idea of evolution was presented by Ibne
Khaldun (1334–1406) in his book, “Kitab al Ibar”. It
became known in Europe as the “Mohammedan Theory
of Biological Evolution”.

Many scientists carried forward the theory. In
19th century, Charles Darwin argued that the evolution
occurs by means of natural selection, as he expressed:
“As many more individuals are produced than can
possibly survive”. The concept was expressed in short by
the words of Spenser as: “Survival of the fittest”.

Simply, many species evolve naturally; the fit
species survive, and the evolution goes on.

Darwin is called Father of the ‘Modern Theory of
Biological Evolution’. Actually, he should be called
Father of the ‘Atheistic Theory of Biological Evolution’
because he tried to establish that the evolution occur
through natural selection, not by God.

Falsehoods perish. So, his argument has been
proven wrong in the laboratories. Living creatures are
the expressions of genome codes that are not natural, but
a proven handiwork of God. The monumentally complex
genome codes of different interdependent creatures
cannot modify at its own in a positive direction.

So, the Biological Evolution is true but the
Theory of Natural Selection is wrong. The Evolution is
guided by God. And God says that humans are stand
alone creatures.

Modern scientific disciplines have established the
Theory of Biological Evolution firmly. It shows that all
living creatures have descended from bacteria like
microorganisms that originated in the ocean floor more
than three and half billion years ago. It had the same
DNA Double Helix that we have today; only the
expression is different.

“Glory to God, Who created all things that
the earth produces, as well as their own
kind, and things of which they have no
knowledge from Pairs (DNA Double
Helix)” [Al Quran 36:36]

The Instrument of Evolution

A DNA Double Helix Molecule is a long polymer. A
human DNA Molecule is six feet long. It remains coiled
in a chromatid.

A gene is a part of the DNA, which encodes a
function. There are about 23000 genes in a strand of
human DNA. These 23000 makes 2% of DNA; the jobs
of rest 98% are unknown.

Surprisingly, the DNA of a chicken has the same
numbers of genes (23000). It is minor variations in the
genes and their switching on and off during formation of
a body determines the kind of animal it will produce.

DNA is like a huge factory that has many kinds
of machines. It is the Chief Executive that determines
which machines will run and for how long, and what will
be produced: a Tank, or a Car. If the body making machines runs for a long time, it produces the body of a
tank; if it runs for a short time, it produces the body of a
light car.

It is the same genes that work in plants, horses,
peacock, and fruit fly, yet they produce widely different
results. It is hard to differentiate the embryo of a human
and the embryo of a chicken. As they grow, their features
become evident. The ‘body plan gene’ directs, when and
where the head will grow—whether it is chicken head or
human head; where the legs will grow—whether it is
human leg or chicken leg; where the hands / wings will
grow, and so on.

Another set of DNA determines body patterning,
the blotches and spots.

Modern Scientist Sean B. Carrol suggests how
these genes are used to create diverse creatures. There
are pitches of DNA, called Switches. The switches are
not genes. They do not make stuff like hair, cartilage, or
muscle, but they turn on and off the genes that produce
these things. Thus, they choreograph the blotches and
spots of the animal body.

A particular ‘body plan gene’ is called hox gene.
They are at the top of the chain of command. They give
order that cascade through developing embryo,
activating entire network of switches and genes that
makes the parts of body. They are critical to the shape
and form of a developing creature.

Thus, there are genes that make the staffs of our
body, such as hair, cartilage, and muscle. There are
switches that turn them on and off. And there are hox
genes that give commands of coordination.

Therefore, the origin of whole new structure in
the evolution does not involve the origin of new gene or
whole new genetic recipe; the old genes can be reconfigured to create a new species.

The first single cell creature had the same DNA
Double Helix Molecule we have today?

A new form of life had to have new code in the
form of information inscribed in the spine of DNA
Molecule. Such monumentally complex code could not
modify at its own.

There are clearly defined periods when the
modifications took place. The Cambrian Explosion was
an explosion of biological form, but it was an explosion
of biological information as well. And we know what it
takes to generate information into the computer.

So, evolution is not a continuous process and did
not go on as a matter of survival of the fittest. A Super
Intelligent Creator carried it forward by modifying the
genome codes.

The First Living Creature


Allah has evolved the Universe from a tiny state of unity.
And He has evolved the giant blue whales from a tiny
single-cell creature that was created in the ocean:


“Do not the unbelievers see that the “Skies
and Lands” (Universe) were joined
together, before We clove them asunder?
We made from water every living thing.
Will they not then believe?”
[Al Quran 21:30]

Allah designed the laws and initial configuration
of the Universe so that it would evolve as desired. But
the design could not be impregnated with the information
needed to create the genomes of the first living creature
(a genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA,
including all of its genes).


The DNA structure, which is able to re-produce
another similar creature, is so complex and contains such
a huge information that it almost absolutely negates the
probability of accidental creation—the probability is 1 in
10 to the power of 340,000,000).

So, the first genome was a special insertion by
God and subsequently He modified it through the angels
to create the higher species.

Reason of Evolution
The Quran does not say that Allah created this vast
universe by a single order of “Be”. Instead, it says that
He created it in six periods. Each of those periods was a
long period of time. He adopted the best possible way to
create. It was to create through guided evolution.
Otherwise, one of His names is Evolver.


“The One Who made good everything He
created, and He began the creation of man
with clay.” [Al Quran 32:7]

The above Verse says the reason of evolution: It was to
make good everything He had created. In other words, it
was to evolve the creatures from lower to higher form.

For example, He created horses, but those were only 20
cm high, so He made them big by modifying their
genome code. Thus, they can carry us.

Reptiles were dominant creatures during the
Mesozoic Era. So, the horses had to be small to hide into
the undergrowth and small holes. As the Age of Mammal
(Cenozoic Era) appeared about 65 Million years ago, the
evolution was directed to make the Earth smooth for
Adam. The Reptiles were erased and the Horses were
made bigger.

“Be” and it is!

Allah is ever living, and He has no competitor. So, He
was not in a hurry to create.

Primitive Earth was not suitable for complex
creatures. So, He created a tiny single-cell creature that could survive and contribute to make the Earth suitable
for higher creatures. He created the first living creature
with double helix DNA Molecules, suitable to carry
forward the Biological Evolution. He monitored the
subsequent evolution through angels.

The first living cell was unfathomable complex
highly developed creature, because it could survive in
the nature independently and could replicate.

There was no free oxygen in the atmosphere, so
there was no ozone layer to protect the earth from
harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations, so the evolution of
life was going on in the water.

Free oxygen produced in the air and the evolution
of land living creatures was started.

The continents drifted, mountains formed, rains
raised the ground water, and the fruit bearing big trees
were evolved.


When the Earth became suitable, Allah created
Adam separately, but with the same DNA Double Helix
Molecules (Pairs).

“Glory to God, Who created all things that
the earth produces, as well as their own
kind, and things of which they have no
knowledge from Pairs (DNA Double
Helix)” [Al Quran 36:36]


His process of making the Earth suitable for
Adam is viewed by us as Evolution.


The author of the above excerpt believed in a God guided evolution, but he denied Adam being evolved from earlier hominids. He was right in his claim of a God guided evolution but made a mistake with regard to humans. Experts in the field have, however, refuted this claim.

Maurice Bucaille argues:

“It is futile to seek discrepancies between the Quran and the data of paleontology, or with the information allowing us to conceive of a creative evolution, for there are none.” (What is the Origin of Man, pg. 179)

Regarding the hominid fossils that have been found, he comments:

“Nevertheless, the remains that have been found and acknowledged today as such are indeed human.” (What is the Origin of Man, pg. 205)

He further comments:

“We now possess incontrovertible evidence indicating that present day man is not quite the same as the human forms that lived long ago, whose remains we have recently discovered; the existence of transformations within the human species over the course of time is therefore undeniable, and is as obvious as the fact that the earth is round.” (What is the Origin of Man, pg. 205)

According to P.P. Grasse,

“Zoologists and botanists are nearly unanimous in considering evolution as a fact and not a hypothesis. I agree with this position and base it primarily on documents provided by paleontology, i.e., the history of the living world.” (Evolution of Living Orginisms pg. 3)

Also, see the post:

Creative Evolution: The Only History of Life – P.P. Grasse

Sean B. Carroll writes,

“The physical differences between the forms of modern humans, earlier hominins, and the great apes are the products of evolutionary changes in development”

and

“The body of evidence tells us that the evolution of human form was not special or atypical of other animals. We should expect then that what we know about the evolution of animal form, in general, applies as well to humans.” (Endless Forms Most Beautiful pg. 227-228)

Basil Altaie mentions:

“In short, the theory of evolution is distinct from the principle of evolution. In my view, the Holy Quran does not object to the notion of the biological evolution of human beings, nor does it set out any specific details for the mechanisms of this evolution and its various stages.” (The Divine Word and The Grand Design, pg. 146)

References:

Altaie, Basil. (2019). The Divine Word and The Grand Design. (p. 146). The Divine Word and The Grand Design: Interpreting the Qur’an in the Light of Modern Science: Altaie, Mohammed Basil: 9781912356201: Books – Amazon.ca

Bucaille, Maurice (1983). What is the Origin of Man? The Answers of Science and the Holy Scriptures. p. 179, 200). http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/WhatIsTheOriginOfManMauriceBucailleDr.pdf

Carroll B., Sean. (2005). Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo. (pg. 227-228) . http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Endless-Forms-Most-Beautiful_-The-New-Science-of-Evo-Devo-and-the-Making-of-the-Animal-Kingdom-PDFDrive-.pdf

Grassé, Pierre-P.. Evolution of Living Organisms (p. 3). Elsevier Science. Kindle Edition.

Kamal, Zakaria. (2020). Six-Day Model of
Creation. (pg. 60-67). Retrieved from https://be80e186-f16a-4e33-8faf-26a17d36fc6b.filesusr.com/ugd/185ca2_db5ed452ff8741c8bd3110508478b260.pdf

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