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2:190 Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.

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Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.

The following excerpt is taken from “Maariful Quran” Vol 1 pg. 482-

Jihad: To fight in the way of Allah
That Jihad and Qital or fighting against disbelievers was
prohibited prior to the emigration to adi in ah is a fact the entire
Muslim community agrees upon. All verses revealed during that time
advised Muslims to be patient against pains inflicted on them by
disbelievers, even to ignore and forgive when they can. It was after the
emigration to ad in ah that the first command to fight against
them came through this verse (as said by al-arabi ibn Anas and
others). Another narration from Sayyidna Abii Bakr al-Siddiq says that the first verse relating to this subject is “Leave is’ given to those who are fought against because they were
wronged”, but according to a majority of the blessed Companions and
their successors, the first verse commanding to fight the disbelievers is this very verse from Siirah al-Baqarah while the verse which has been identified as the first verse on this subject by Sayyidna Abu Bakr
al-siddiq, that too, being among the very initial verses revealed, could
be called the first.
The command in this verse is that Muslims should fight only those
disbelievers who come to fight against them. It means that there are
other people too who do not take part in fighting, such as, the women,
the children, the very old, the priests and monks and others devoting
themselves to quiet religious pursuits, and the physically handicapped, and those casual labourers who work for disbelievers and do not go to fight along with them; it is not permissible to kill such people
in a Jihad. The reason is that the command in the verse is restricted
to fighting those who come to fight Muslims. The kind of people mentioned above are not all fighters. That is why Muslim Jurists have also ruled that should a woman, an old man or. religious person
take part in actual fighting along with disbelievers or be helping them
in any manner in their fight against the Muslims, then, killing them is
permissible because they come under the purview of :’those
who fight you’. (Mazhari, Qurtubi , and Jassas)
The battle orders of the Holy Prophet given to the mujahidTn of
Islam at the time of Jihad carry a good explanation of this injunction.
In a hadith from al-Bukhari and Muslim, as narrated by the blessed
companion ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, it is said:

‘The Holy Prophet (S) has prohibited the killing of women and children.’

The following instructions from the Holy Prophet given to the Companions going on Jihad have been narrated in a hadith from Sayyidna Anas which appears in Ab Dawud: ‘Go for Jihad in the name of Allah adhering to the community of the Messenger of Allah. Do not kill anyone old and weak, any young child or any woman.’ (Mazhari)

When Sayyidna Abu Bakr al-Saddik sent Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan to Syria, he gave him the same instructions. Also added there is the prohibition of killing the religiously-devoted, the monks and priests, and the labourers employed by disbelievers, specially when they do not take part in fighting (Qurtubi).

The expression (and do not transgress) towards the end of
the verse, according to the majority of the commentators means – ‘do
not go beyond the limit in fighting as to start killing women and
children’.

References:

Shafi, Muhammad (2008). Maariful Quran. (Vol .1 pg. 482-484) http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/maarif-volum1-english.pdf

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