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Remember ye implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you: “I will assist you with a thousand of the angels, ranks on ranks.”

It is said that on the day of the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet
(pbuh) implored Allâh in the following words: “O Lord! Fulfil what
you have promised. O Allâh! If this little band of your servants is
destroyed you will not be worshipped on earth.” (Bukhârî, Abû
Muslim). The verse above was revealed in response to this prayer. The
“help with a thousand angels” should be understood in a metaphorical
sense. There is no statement in the Holy Qur’ân that angels actually
fought. Here and in 3:125 it is to be meant that the help from angels
was in the form of strengthening the hearts of the Muslims against the
three times bigger and much more well-equipped Makkan forces, and
at the same time filling the hearts of their enemies with fear:
َِIt is said that during the fight calm and
tranquillity fell upon the Companions who were fighting (8:10), and
their hearts felt strengthened and their footsteps steadied (8:11).
The number one thousand angels is significant. In the battle of Badr
the number of enemies fighting against the Muslims was 1,000 and
the number of angels who came to aid the Muslims was 1,000. In the
battle of Uhad the enemy attacked the Muslim with 3,000 men, and the angels who came to aid the Muslims were also 3,000 (3:124). Finally, in the Battle of the Confederates, the enemy came with 5,000
soldiers and correspondingly the number of angels on the Muslim side
was 5,000 (3:125). These varying numbers also tell the number of the
enemy forces fighting against the Muslims on each of these three
occasions.

References:

NOORUDDÎN ,ALLÂMAH. (2015). Exegesis of The Holy Qur’ân Commentary and Reflections.  http://www.islamicweblibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Exegesis-of-the-Holy-Quran-Commentary-and-Reflections.pdf

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