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48:27-29 The Prophet’s Dream: The Conquest of Makkah

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Certainly Allah had shown to His Messenger the vision with truth: you shall most certainly enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah pleases, in security, (some) having their heads shaved and (others) having their hair cut, you shall not fear, but He knows what you do not know, so He brought about a near victory before that.

It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion: and enough is Allah for a Witness.

Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward.


Recapitulation of the Event of Hudaibiyah

When the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiyah was completed, it was decided
that the Muslims would not enter Makkah that year, and would return to
Madinah without performing ‘Umrah. They were highly upset at this,
because the blessed Companions’ determination to perform ‘Umrah wag
on account of the Holy Prophet’s a vision, which is also a kind of
revelation. The fact that everything was apparently happening contrary
to the vision, they could not understand how the Holy Prophet’s ae
journey had served its purpose. Some of the noble Companions, as a
result, began to doubt, God forbid!, whether the vision was not fulfilled,
The non-believers and hypocrites, on the other hand, taunted the
believers that their Prophet’s dream was not translated into reality. At
this, the current set of verses was revealed (Transmitted by Baihaqi and others
from Mujahid).

(Indeed, Allah has made true to His
Messenger the dream (shown) with truth…48:27). Sidq [truth] is,
lexically, the antonym of kidhb [lie or falsehood]. Both these words are
used for statements. If a statement is conformable to existing fact or
reality, it is sidq. If it lacks accord with fact or reality, it is kidhb.
Sometimes this word is used in relation to actions. In that case the word
connotes the realization of an action, as for instance in [33:23], (Among the believers are men who were true to their covenant
with Allah;…). In this case the word sidg takes two grammatical objects,
as in this verse the first object of the verb sadaga is rasulahu and its
second object is ru’ya. The verse says that Allah has made true the dream.
Here the event that was to take place in future has been expressed in the
past perfect tense because of its certainty of occurrence. A reinforcing
context that this event is definitely going to take place in future is
expressed in energetic aorist thus: “You will most
definitely enter the Sacred Mosque.” (The construction under analysis
la-tadkhulu-nna is made up of the following constituents: The
corrobarative Ja is prefixed to the aorist denoting “Certainly” + the
doubled energertic or corrobatative nun reinforcing the sense of “most
definitely” appended as a suffix to the future tense “you shall
most definitely enter”). That is to say, the vision you had seen that you
we entered the sacred Mosque will most definitely happen. It will not
happen this year. It will happen at a future date. The date had not been
specified in the dream. The blessed Companions in their enthusiasm made
up their mind to set out for the journey that very year, and the Holy
‘Prophet (S) concurred with their determination. There was much Divine
“wisdom in it which became manifest at the time of the Treaty of
Hudaibiyah and served many useful purposes to which reference is
glready made. For example, when Sayyidna ‘Umar (RA) questioned the
whole situation and expressed his doubt, Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) allayed
“his suspicions and misgivings. He said no particular date and year was
specified in the Holy Prophet’s (S) vision. If it did not happen now, it does
not matter; it will happen at some other time (Qurtubi).

Importance of insha-allah for the Performance of Future Works

In this verse Allah promises the Muslims that they will most definitely
enter the sacred precincts of Makkah at a future time, and in making His
promise He employed the phrase alii glad! insha-allan (If Allah wills or God
willing]. Allah being fully aware of His Will, there was no need for Him to
have used the phrase, yet He used it (Qurtubi). This has been done for the
purpose of teaching the Messenger and the people the importance of
insha-allah. (Qurtubi)

(your heads shaved, your hair cut short…
48:27). It is recorded in Bukhari that when ‘Umrah that was missed in
the sixth year of Hijrah was performed in Dhul Qa‘dah of the following
year (7 .H.] and came to be known in history as ‘Umrat-ul-Qada’,
Sayyidna Mu‘awiyah (RA) says he trimmed the blessed hair of the Holy
Prophet 48 with a pair of scissors. This incident took place in
‘Umrat-ul-Qada’, not in hajja-tul-wada’ [farewell pilgrimage] because on
the latter occasion he had his head shaved (Qurtubi).

(So He knew what you did not know….48:27). It was
within Allah’s power to have allowed the Muslims to enter the sacred
Mosque and perform their ‘Umrah that very year. However, there was
great wisdom in deferring it until the following year which Allah only
knew and the Muslims generally did not know. Among these benefits was
the conquest of Khaibar which Allah had willed must be achieved first, so
that the Muslims may become a powerful force in terms of material
resources. This would make it possible for them to perform their ‘Umrah
peacefully and with tranquility.
Thus the Qur’an says: (and He assigned before that a well-nigh victory.) [27]” SS js3Diing
dhalika (before that) in this context stands for i 4s3Dunar-ru’ya, that is
to say, before the fulfilment of this vision, the Muslims must achieve the
conquest of Khaibar which is near at hand. Some scholars have
expressed the view that [nigh victory] refers to the
Peace Treaty of Hudaibiyah itself, because that opened the gate for the
victory of Makkah and all subsequent victories. Eventually, all the noble
Companions acknowledged the Treaty to be the greatest of all victories,
The meaning of the verse would be: you did not know what wisdom and
good lay hidden in your determination to march, then your apparent
failure to accomplish it, and eventually in reaching a peace settlement the
terms of which seemed to be hurtful to your self-respect but Allah was
fully acquainted with it. He had ordained that before the Holy Prophet’s vision should manifest itself, you might be blessed with another victory in the form of the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiyah – a victory near at hand.
As a result of this victory, it was seen by all that while on the occasion of
Hudaibiyah the noble Companions did not number more than 1500, later
they increased in number to about 10000 (Qurtubi).

(He is the One who has sent His
Messenger with Guidance and the religion of truth, so that He makes it
prevail over all religions….48:28). In the preceding verses, promises were
made about conquests and spoils of war; reference was made to the special
merits of the participants of Hudaibiyah and general merits of all the
noble Companions; and glad tidings were given to them. Now at the
conclusion of the Surah all these themes are summarized and
emphasized. Because these blessings were showered and the glad tidings
were given as a result of accepting and obeying the Holy Prophet Me the
verse lays further stress on strengthening the acceptance and obedience
of the Holy Prophet ae It also denounces those who reject the
messengership of the Holy Prophet He and allays suspicions of those
Muslims who were dissatisfied with the terms and provisions of the Treaty
of Hudaibiyah. The verse in addition confirms the messengership of the
Holy Prophet (S) and, giving glad tidings, makes a very bold prophecy to
the effect that not only would Islam prevail in Arabia but would also
eventually triumph over all other religions.

(Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah…48:29). The
general style of the Qur’an is that, instead of referring to the Holy
Prophet te by his name, he is normally called by one or another of his
characteristic or attributive names especially in vocative cases, as for
example, ya ayyuhan-nabiyyu, ya ayyuhar-rasiulu, yaayyuhal-
muzzammilu and so on, unlike other prophets who are addressed by their
personal names, as for instance, ya ibrahimu, ya musa, ya ‘isa. The Holy
Prophet ea is addressed four times only in the entire Qur’an by his
personal name Muhammad. This is done only where there is a special
reason for it. Here the reason is that when at Hudaibiyah, the Peace
Treaty was being written, the unbelievers had objected to the use of the
characteristic or attributive name [rasulul-lah| with the personal name of
the Messenger of Allah. The pagan Quraish wiped off Muhammad
rasul-ul-lah, and insisted that it be replaced with Muhammad Ibn
‘Abdullah. By the command of Allah, the Messenger accepted it. However,
Allah on this occasion, in the Qur’an, especially attached the
characteristic phrase rasulul-lah [Messenger of Allah] to his personal
name [Muhammad] and thus entrenched it permanently in His Last
Book, the Holy Qur’an, so that it will be written and recited like that until
the Judgement Day.

and those who are with him are hard against the disbelievers, compassionate
among themselves; you will see them bowing down in ruku’‘, prostrating
in sajdah, seeking bounty from Allah and (His) good pleasure;…. 48:29).
From this point onwards the merits of the noble Companions of the Holy
Prophet Ae are described. Although the immediate addressees of the verse
are the noble participants of Hudaibiyah and bai‘at-ur-Ridwan. But on
account of the generality of words, all blessed Companions are included in
the description, because a sahabi or Companion is one who embraced
Islam, saw the Holy Prophet 2 and accompanied him, even for a short
time.

The Qualities, Merits and Special Marks of the Noble
Companions

Allah Ta‘ala, on this occasion, describes the messengership of the Holy
Prophet te and makes a prophecy to the effect that not only would Islam
prevail in Arabia, but would also eventually triumph over all other
religions. In addition, He has described the qualities, the merits and the
special marks of the noble Companions :. The severe test which they
had to undergo at the time of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah has also been
described. The passage describes that they never wavered from the path
of rectitude despite the fact that the Treaty was against their firm belief
and heart-felt emotions, and despite the fact that they could not enter the
sacred Mosque, and had to return without performing ‘Umrah. In these
unfavourable circumstances, they displayed an unusual obedience of the
Holy Prophet Me and their strength of faith. The blessed Companions
have been described here fully, because the Holy Prophet we is the Final
Messenger and there shall be no prophet or messenger after him. He left
behind him the Book of Allah and the paradigm of noble Companions to
follow. Specific injunctions have been laid down to emulate their pattern
of life. Therefore, the Qur’an too describes the merits of the blessed
Companions, and encourages and emphasizes to follow their model of life.

The first quality of the Companions mentioned here is that they are
hard against the unbelievers, and merciful to one another. It was proven
time and again that they were harsh against the unbelievers. They
sacrificed all their ethnic and tribal relations for the sake of Islam. This
was especially demonstrated on the occasion of Hudaibiyah. The
tenderness of the blessed Companions was especially demonstrated when
Islamic brotherhood [mu‘Gkhat] was created between muhajirs [emigrants
from Makkah] and ansar (helpers from Madinah]. Ansar invited the
muhajirin to share with them in their holdings. The Qur’an describes this
quality of the blessed Companions first, because nothing they practiced –
whether friendship or enmity, love or hatred – was for any selfish reasons.
Everything was for the sake of Allah and His Messenger – and this is the
highest degree of perfect faith. In a Hadith recorded by Bukhari, the Holy
Prophet we has said,

“He who loves for the sake of Allah and hates for the sake of
Allah has attained the highest degree of faith.”

This means that anyone who has subjugated his friendship, love,
hatred and enmity under the Will of Allah has perfected his faith. This
clarifies another point: The Companions’ being hard against the
unbelievers does not imply that they were never tender towards any
non-believer. In fact it means that where Allah and His Messenger
enjoins them to be hard against the non-believers, they would simply
comply without taking into account the relations of kinship or friendship.
As far as kind and equitable dealing with them is concerned, the Qur’an
itself promulgates:

“Allah does not forbid you from those who did not fight you on
account of faith, and did not expel you from your homes, that
you do good to them, and deal justly with them.” (60:8).

There is a large number of incidents where Allah’s Messenger and the
blessed Companions displayed their kindness and compassion to the
helpless and needy unbelievers. Treating them with justice and equity is
the general injunction of Islam. No activity flouting justice and equity is
permissible even in the field of pitched battle.

The second quality of the blessed Companions is that they are
generally preoccupied with bowing and prostrating. The first quality is
the mark of their perfection in faith and the second quality is the mark of
their perfection in deeds, because salah is the most meritorious of all the
good deeds.

(their distinguishing feature is on their faces
from the effect of sajdah (prostration)….48:29). That is to say, salah has
become such a permanent routine of their life that the special effects of
salah and sajdah are evident on their faces. These distiguishing features
do not necessarily refer to any physical sign on the forehead on account of
constant prostration. This in fact refers to the light and brightness that is
teflected naturally on the faces of the devout as a result of humility,
meekness and gentleness of disposition. Particularly this is one of the
effects that follow from offering tahajjud salah regularly. It is recorded in

Ibn Majah on the authority of Syyidna Jabir that the Holy Prophet (S)
has said,

“He who offers his salah abundantly at night, his face looks
good during the day.”

Hadrat Hasan Basri has said that the “features” in the
verse refer to the light that the faces of those who pray will emit on the
Day of Judgement.

(This is their description in the Torah; and their description in
the Injil is: like a sown crop that brings forth its shoot, then
makes it strong, then it grows thick and stands straight on its
stem, looking good to the farmers, so that He may enrage the
disbelievers through them. Allah has promised forgiveness and

a huge reward to those of them who believe and do good deeds….
48:29)

This part of the verse states the description of the noble Companions
given above about the light of their prostration and prayers on their
forehead is the same description as was given in the Torah for the
Companions of the Holy Prophet ae And another parable of them is put
in the Gospel [injil]: When a farmer sows a seed in his field, it grows over
a period of time – especially so that it changes from its original form intoa
form which is at first weak like a thin needle, then it develops into
branches getting stronger, larger and more complicated. Eventually when
it is fully grown, it is the strongest of shrubs and becomes a tree. Likewise
the Companions of the Holy Prophet (S) in the beginning were very few.
At one time, besides the Holy Prophet Bo there were only three Muslims:
Among men, Sayyidna Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (RA); among women, Sayyidah
Khadijah and among children, Sayyidna ‘Ali (RA), Gradually, but
progressively, the strength of the Muslims continued to grow, so much so
that the number of the noble Companions who performed the farewell
pilgrimage with the Holy Prophet 4 is said to be about One hundred and
fifty thousand (150,000).

There are three possibilities in this verse: First, the grammatical pause
be observed at fit-tawrah in which case it will mean that the previous
likeness, that is, the light of the faces is described in the Torah. In this
case, a grammatical pause would not be observed at fil-injil, but one
ghould proceed without stopping, and it will mean that the parable of the
noble Companions in the Gospel is like a field or tree which at the
beginning is very weak but gradually it grows strong.

The second possibility is that the pause be observed at deny! i fil-injil
rather than at, in which case the meaning would be
that the description of the light of their faces is found both in Torah and
the Gospel, as here in the Qur’an. Then Ka-zar-‘in “like a sown crop” may
be treated as a separate parable.

The third possibility is that the statement does not end at fit-tawrah
nor at fil-injil. In this case dhalika, the demonstrative pronoun, would
point to the next parable, and it would mean that the description of the
Companions is given in both the Torah and the Gospel “like a sown crop”.
If the Torah and the Gospel had been intact in their original form, we
could have compared the parables as given in those books with those
given here in the Qur’an and determined its exact meaning. However, the
present-day Torah and the Gospel have been subjected to many
alterations and distortions. Therefore, its true import cannot be
determined with any degree of certainty. Nevertheless, most
-commentators prefer the first possibility according to which the first
description is found in the Torah and the second parable is found in the
Gospel. Imam Baghawi says that this description of the noble Companions
is found in the Gospel in the following way : At the beginning they will be
few in number, then the number will grow and become strong. Qatadah
quotes from the Injil as follows: “Such a people will emerge who will grow
like a crop; they will enjoin good works and forbid evil works” (Mazhari).
Despite changes in the present-day Torah and Gospel, the following
prophecy is found:

“He said: The Lord came from Mount Sinai; and rose up from
Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he
came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a
fiery law for them. Yea, he loved the people; all his saints are in
thy hand: and they sat down at thy feet; every one shall receive
of thy words.” [Deut. 33:2]

As pointed out earlier, at the time of the conquest of Makkah there
were 10000 Companions who entered the City of Khalil Ibrahim
(Makkah) with the embodiment of light [Prophet Muhammad (S)] whose
advent was from the mount Paran (in which the Cave of Hira’ is
situated). The expression “in his hand will be a fiery sacrosanct law
[Shari‘ah]” probably refers to us “hard against the unbelievers”.
The expression “he will love his people” is understood to refer to “compassionate to one another”. The details are set out together with other references in a work Izhar-ul-haq, Vol. 3/ chap. 6: p.256. This book was written by Maulana Rahmatullah Kairanwi against the Priest Fonder . In this book, the parable of Injil is Qouted as follows:

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom
of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took,
and sowed in his field: which indeed is the least of all seeds: but
when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh
a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the
branches thereof. [Matthew 13:31-32]

The following passage is quoted from Mark 4:26 in Izhar-ul-haq, Vol
3 chap 6:p. 310:

And he said, so is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast
seed into the ground; And should sleep, rise night and day, and
the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how. For
the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the
ear, after that the full corn in the ear. But when the fruit is
brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the
harvest is come. (Mark 4: 27-29)

The expression “kingdom of heaven” on various occasions in the
Gospel seems to refer to the Final Messenger. Allah knows best!

(… that He may enrage the disbelievers through
them…48:29). That is, Allah has characterized the blessed Companions by
some noble qualities. He made them strong after being weak and
multiplied them into large numbers after being small in numbers. Seeing
the growth and expansion of Islam and Muslims, the unbelievers became
furious and angry towards them, and envious of them, burning in the fire
of jealousy. Abu ‘Urwah Zubairi says he was sitting in one of the sessions
of Imam Malik when a person uttered a belittling statement against the
blessed Companions. The Imam recited this entire verse. When he came to
the clause “so that He may enrage the disbelievers through them. [29]”, he

.. garah Al-Fath : 48 : 27 – 29 109
said this warning will apply to anyone who belittles the blessed
Companions (Qurtubi). The Imam did not say that such a person would
pecome kafir, however he said that the warning applies to such a person.
It means that the conduct of such a person will be like that of unbelievers.
(Allah has promised
forgiveness and a huge reward to those of them who believe and do good
deeds. ..48:29). The preposition min in the prepositional phrase min-hum is
by consensus of Qur’anic scholarly opinion an explicative or min
lil-bayan or tabyin. Therefore, it means that it is Allah’s promise to those
Muslims who are selfless in faith and strong in character that He will
forgive them and give them a great reward. The preposition min serves to
make clear and explains that all the blessed Companions – without any
exception – believe and do deeds of righteousness. The second point this
verse clarifies is that Allah has promised them all without any exception
forgiveness and a mighty reward. Min lil-bayan or tabyin is frequently
used in the Qur’an. For example, the command in [22:30] “So, refrain from the filth of the idols and refrain from
a word of falsehood” (22:30). In this clause, the preposition min explicates
the obscure noun ris as referring to the “idols”. Likewise the prepositional
phrase min-hum here is explicative of “those who believe”. Rawafid,
however, treat the preposition min as partitive denoting a part as distinct.
from the whole – meaning the promise of forgiveness and mighty reward
applies only to a part of those who believed and worked deeds of
righteousness. This is completely incompatible with the context and in
conflict with the above verses. This verse undoubtedly comprehends all
the blessed Companions. However, the immediate application of this
verse is to the participants of Hudaibiyah and the Pledge of Ridwan. In
the preceding verses Allah has announced that they have incurred His
pleasure:

“Allah was pleased with the believers when they were pledging
allegiance with you by placing their hands in your hands under
the tree,…”(18)

This verse is a guarantee that they will all be firmly established in
their faith and righteousness, because Allah is All-knowing and
Well-Aware of what is going to happen. If Allah knows that anyone at
anytime will turn away from the faith, He will never announce about His
pleasure. Ibn ‘Abdul Barr, quoting this verse in the introduction to his
book isti‘ab, writes:

“He with whom Allah is pleased, He will never be displeased
with him.”.

On the basis of this verse, the Holy Prophet we said that no one from
among the participants of the Pledge of Ridwan will ever enter the Fire. It
is absolutely invalid to exclude some of those who were originally
promised forgiveness and a mighty reward. Hence there is unanimity
among ummah on the point that all the noble Companions are impartial,
unbiased and worthy of confidence.

All Companions Are Inmates of Paradise: Their Sins Are Forgiven
and to Belittle them is a Major Sin

Many verses of the Qur’an bear testimony to this fact. Some of the
verses are part of this Surah. For instance,

“Allah was pleased with the believers…48:29”

and

“_..and made them stick to the word of piety, and they were very

much entitled to it, and competent for it.”. (48:26)

Besides, in several verses scattered in various other Surahs the same
position has been affirmed for all the Companions:

“on the Day when Allah will not disgrace the Prophet and those
who believed with him.” [66:8]

“As for the first and foremost of the Emigrants and the
Supporters, and those who followed them in goodness, Allah is
pleased with them, and they are pleased with him; and He has
prepared for them gardens berneath which rivers flow…”[9:100]

And in Surah Al-Hadid, Allah has promised the Companions as

follows:

“Allah has promised Husna (the good ) for each.” (57:10)

_ And about Husna it is said in Surah Anbiya’:

Surely, those for whom the good (news) from Us has come
earlier shall be kept far away from it (the Hell) [21: 100]

The Holy Prophet de is reported to have said:

“The best of generations is my generation, then that which
follows it immediately and then that which follows it
immediately (Bukhari).”

In a Hadith the Holy Prophet (S) is reported to have said: “Do not
revile my Companions, for if one of you contributed as much gold as the
mount “Uhud, it would not amount to as much as the mudd of one of
them, or half of it (Bukhari). A mudd in Arabia was a measure which,
according to the Hanafi school of Fiqh, is equal to 1.032 litre or 815. 39
grams and, according to the other three major schools, it is equal to 0. 687
litre or 543 grams. Bazzar records with a sound chain of transmitters that
Holy Prophet (S) is reported to have said: “Of all the people in the entire
world Allah has chosen my Companions, and of all the Companions He
has particularly chosen four for me – Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali
. (See Jam‘-ul-Fawa’d)

There is a Hadith recorded in Tirmidhi on the authority of ‘Abdullah
Ibn Mughaffal (RA). In it the Holy Prophet (S) said:

“Fear Allah, fear Allah regarding my Companions! Do not
make them a target of your criticism after me. He who loves
them does so on account of my love; he who hates them does so
on account of hating me; and he who injures them has injured
me, and he who injures me has injured Allah. He who intends
to injure Allah will soon be punished by Him.”

I have written a book entitled maqam-e-sahabah in which I have
collected relevant Qur’anic verses and Prophetic Traditions pertaining to
the status of the Companions. This book has already been published in
Urdu. The “Ummah is unanimous on the point that all the blesseq
Companions are righteous and worthy of confidence. The book deals
elaborately with their disagreements and the civil wars that took place
among them. It also explains how a Muslim critic should deal with the
differences of the sahabah and whether it should be made a subject of
debate and investigation or one should avoid commenting on them. Some
of these issues to the degree necessary have been included in the
commentary of Surah Muhammad. Please refer to the relevant section
there. Allah’s help is sought and on Him is our reliance!

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